Friday, October 11, 2013

Nobel prize winners in Chemistry; Complete list from 1901 to 2013

Nobel prize in Chemistry is annually awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.It is given to the scientists with Outstanding contributions in various fields of chemistry.The first Nobel Prize for Chemistry was given in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff of Netherlands for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.An Indo-American,Venkataraman Ramakrishnan,has shared Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Thomas Steitz and Ada Yonath for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome in 2009.The complete list of Nobel prize winners for chemistry is given below.
 Nobel prize for Chemistry for the year 2013


  The Nobel prize for Chemistry for the year 2013 was given jointly to three US based scientists, Martin Karplus (US and Austrian citizen), Michael Levitt (British and US citizen) and Arieh Warshel (US and Israeli citizen) for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.
2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz (U.S.A), Brian K. Kobilka (U.S.A)- Awarded for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
2011
Dan Shechtman (Israel)- Awarded for the discovery of quasicrystals
2010
Richard F. Heck (U.S.A), Ei-ichi Negishi (U.S.A), Akira Suzuki (Japan)- Awarded for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis
2009
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (U.S.A/ India), Thomas A. Steitz (U.S.A), Ada E. Yonath (Israel)- Awarded for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome
2008
Osamu Shimomura (Japan), Martin Chalfie (U.S.A), Roger Y. Tsien (U.S.A)- Awarded for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
2007
Gerhard Ertl (Germany)- Awarded for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces
2006
Roger D. Kornberg (U.S.A)- Awarded for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
2005
Yves Chauvin (France), Robert H. Grubbs (U.S.A), Richard R. Schrock (U.S.A)- Awarded for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
2004
Aaron Ciechanover (Israel), Avram Hershko (Israel), Irwin Rose (U.S.A)- Awarded for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
2003
Peter Agre (U.S.A)- Awarded for the discovery of water channels
Roderick MacKinnon (U.S.A)- Awarded for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels
2002
John B. Fenn (U.S.A), Koichi Tanaka (Japan)- Awarded for for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules
Kurt Wüthrich (Switzerland)- Awarded for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution
2001
William S. Knowles (U.S.A), Ryoji Noyori (Japan)- Awarded for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions
K. Barry Sharpless (U.S.A)- Awarded for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions
2000
Alan J. Heeger (U.S.A), Alan G. MacDiarmid (U.S.A/ Newzealand), Hideki Shirakawa (Japan)- Awarded for their discovery and development of conductive polymers
1999
Ahmed H. Zewail (Egypt/ U.S.A)- Awarded for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
1998
Walter Kohn (U.S.A)- Awarded for his development of the density-functional theory
John A. Pople (U.K)- Awarded for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
1997
Paul D. Boyer (U.S.A), John E. Walker (U.K)- Awarded for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Jens C. Skou (Denmark)- Awarded for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase
1996
Robert F. Curl Jr. (U.S.A), Sir Harold W. Kroto (U.K), Richard E. Smalley (U.S.A)- Awarded for their discovery of fullerenes
1995
Paul J. Crutzen (Netherlands), Mario J. Molina (U.S.A), F. Sherwood Rowland (U.S.A)- Awarded for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone
1994
George A. Olah (U.S.A/ Hungary)- Awarded for his contribution to carbocation chemistry
1993
Kary B. Mullis (U.S.A)- Awarded for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method
Michael Smith (Canada)- Awarded for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies
1992
Rudolph A. Marcus (U.S.A)- Awarded for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems
1991
Richard R. Ernst (Switzerland)- Awarded for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
1990
Elias James Corey (U.S.A)- Awarded for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis
1989
Sidney Altman (Canada/ U.S.A), Thomas R. Cech (U.S.A)- Awarded for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA
1988
Johann Deisenhofer (West Germany), Robert Huber (West Germany), Hartmut Michel (West Germany)- Awarded for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre
1987
Donald J. Cram (U.S.A), Jean-Marie Lehn (France), Charles J. Pedersen (U.S.A)- Awarded for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity
1986
Dudley R. Herschbach (U.S.A), Yuan T. Lee (U.S.A/ Taiwan) , John C. Polanyi  (Canada/ Hungary)- Awarded for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes
1985
Herbert A. Hauptman (U.S.A), Jerome Karle (U.S.A)- Awarded for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures
1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield (U.S.A)- Awarded for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix
1983
Henry Taube (U.S.A)- Awarded for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes
1982
Aaron Klug (U.K)- Awarded for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes
1981
Kenichi Fukui (Japan), Roald Hoffmann (U.S.A)- Awarded for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions
1980
Paul Berg (U.S.A)- Awarded for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA
Walter Gilbert (U.S.A), Frederick Sanger (U.K)- Awarded for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids
1979
Herbert C. Brown (U.S.A), Georg Wittig (West Germany)- Awarded for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis
1978
Peter D. Mitchell (U.K)- Awarded for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory
1977
Ilya Prigogine (Belgium)- Awarded for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures
1976
William N. Lipscomb (U.S.A)- Awarded for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding
1975
John Warcup Cornforth (Australia/ United Kingdom)- Awarded for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
Vladimir Prelog (Yugoslavia/ Switzerland)- Awarded for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions
1974
Paul J. Flory (U.S.A)- Awarded for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules
1973
Ernst Otto Fischer (West Germany), Geoffrey Wilkinson (U.K)- Awarded for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds
1972
Christian B. Anfinsen (U.S.A)-- Awarded for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation
Stanford Moore (U.S.A), William H. Stein (U.S.A)- Awarded for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule
1971
Gerhard Herzberg (Canada)- Awarded for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals
1970
Luis F. Leloir (Argentina)- Awarded for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates
1969
Derek H. R. Barton (U.K), Odd Hassel (Norway)- Awarded for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry
1968
Lars Onsager (U.S.A)- Awarded for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes
1967
Manfred Eigen (West Germany), Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (U.K), George Porter (U.K)- Awarded for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy
1966
Robert S. Mulliken (U.S.A)- Awarded for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method
1965
Robert Burns Woodward (U.S.A)- Awarded for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis
1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (U.K)- Awarded for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances
1963
Karl Ziegler (West Germany), Giulio Natta (Italy)- Awarded for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers
1962
Max Ferdinand Perutz (U.K), John Cowdery Kendrew (U.K)- Awarded for their studies of the structures of globular proteins
1961
Melvin Calvin (U.S.A)- Awarded for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants
1960
Willard Frank Libby (U.S.A)- Awarded for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science
1959
Jaroslav Heyrovsky (Czechoslovakia)- Awarded for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis
1958
Frederick Sanger (U.K)- Awarded for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin
1957
Lord (Alexander R.) Todd (U.K)- Awarded for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes
1956
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (U.K), Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov (U.S.S.R)- Awarded for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions
1955
Vincent du Vigneaud (U.S.A)- Awarded for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
1954
Linus Carl Pauling (U.S.A)- Awarded for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances
1953
Hermann Staudinger (West Germany)- Awarded for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry
1952
Archer John Porter Martin (U.K), Richard Laurence Millington Synge (U.K)- Awarded for their invention of partition chromatography
1951
Edwin Mattison McMillan (U.S.A), Glenn Theodore Seaborg (U.S.A)- Awarded for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements
1950
Otto Paul Hermann Diels (West Germany), Kurt Alder (West Germany)- Awarded for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis
1949
William Francis Giauque (U.S.A)- Awarded for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
1948
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (Swedan)- Awarded for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins
1947
Sir Robert Robinson (U.K)- Awarded for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids
1946
James Batcheller Sumner (U.S.A)- Awarded for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized
John Howard Northrop (U.S.A), Wendell Meredith Stanley (U.S.A)- Awarded for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form
1945
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (Finland)- Awarded for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method
1944
Otto Hahn (Germany)- Awarded for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
1943
George de Hevesy (Hungary)- Awarded for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes
1942
Not awarded this year.
1941
Not awarded this year.
1940
Not awarded this year.
1939
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (Germany)- Awarded for his work on sex hormones
Leopold Ruzicka (Croatia)- Awarded for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes
1938
Richard Kuhn (Germany)- Awarded for his work on carotenoids and vitamins
1937
Walter Norman Haworth (U.K)- Awarded for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C
Paul Karrer (Switzerland)- Awarded for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2
1936
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye (Netherlands)- Awarded for his work on molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases
1935
Frédéric Joliot (France), Irène Joliot-Curie (France)- Awarded for their synthesis of new radioactive elements
1934
Harold Clayton Urey (U.S.A)- Awarded for his discovery of heavy hydrogen
1933
Not awarded this year.
1932
Irving Langmuir (U.S.A)- Awarded for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry
1931
Carl Bosch (Germany), Friedrich Bergius (Germany)- Awarded for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods
1930
Hans Fischer (Germany)- Awarded for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin
1929
Arthur Harden (U.K), Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (Germany)- Awarded for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes
1928
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (Germany)- Awarded for his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins
1927
Heinrich Otto Wieland (Germany)- Awarded for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances
1926
The (Theodor) Svedberg (Swedan)- Awarded for his work on disperse systems
1925
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (Germany/ Hungary)- Awarded for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used
1924
Not awarded this year.
1923
Fritz Pregl (Austria)- Awarded for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances
1922
Francis William Aston (U.K)- Awarded for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule
1921
Frederick Soddy (U.K)- Awarded for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes
1920
Walther Hermann Nernst (Germany)- Awarded his work in thermochemistry
1919
Not awarded this year.
1918
Fritz Haber (Germany)- Awarded for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements
1917
Not awarded this year.
1916
Not awarded this year.
1915
Richard Martin Willstätter (Germany)- Awarded for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll
1914
Theodore William Richards (U.S)- Awarded for his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements
1913
Alfred Werner (Switzerland)- Awarded in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry
1912
Victor Grignard (France)- Awarded for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry
Paul Sabatier (France)- Awarded for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals.
1911
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska (Poland/ France)- Awarded for the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element
1910
Otto Wallach (Germany)- Awarded for his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds
1909
Wilhelm Ostwald (Germany)- Awarded for his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction
1908
Ernest Rutherford (U.K/ New Zealand)- Awarded for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances
1907
Eduard Buchner (Germany)- Awarded for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation
1906
Henri Moissan (France)- Awarded for investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him
1905
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (Germany)- Awarded for the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds
1904
Sir William Ramsay (U.K)- Awarded for discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system
1903
Svante August Arrhenius (Swedan)- Awarded for his electrolytic theory of dissociation
1902
Hermann Emil Fischer (Germany)- Awarded for his work on sugar and purine syntheses
1901
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (Netherlands)- Awarded for discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions

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